Caffeine is used in a variety of forms around the world, including tea, coffee, and other caffeinated foods. It is popular because of its ability to enhance wakefulness, intensify mood (it gives joy) and increase alertness. On the other hand, caffeine is also known to cause anxiety, nausea, and shivers when used in large amounts. All of these are regarded to be acute negative effects of excessive caffeine use. It is also common for habitual caffeine users to develop resistance to these acute effects. Caffeine consumption over time has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular illness, but a lower risk of neurological disorders. Each individual can respond differently to caffeine due to various environmental factors such as age, metabolic disorders, medications, health, and sleep schedules. Some individuals can experience anxiety, panic attacks while others may experience sleep disturbance or insomnia. Similarly, some people are prone to have long-term side effects of caffeine. All the discrepancies seen in individuals in response to caffeine is due to Genetic Predisposition.
Genetic predisposition refers to increased risk of developing an illness due to a person's genetic composition. This arises as a result of mutations or variations in an individual's genes, which are inherited from their parents. Such inherited mutations are usually known as polymorphisms. Individuals can react to caffeine differently due to genetic variables, either directly or indirectly. There can be a direct response between caffeine and drugs, resulting in acute or chronic reactions, or an indirect response affecting psychological or physiological effects such as sleep disturbances, anxiety issues, and so on. Several studies have discovered that the amount of caffeine intake is influenced by both hereditary and environmental factors. It has also been claimed that the genetic influence of tea is less than that of coffee considering tea contains less caffeine. Twin studies on the heredity of caffeine use and caffeine-related characteristics have been conducted. Caffeine-related behaviours are heritable, according to twin studies. An examination of polysubstance use reveals that the tendency to caffeine use is very specific to caffeine and has little in common with other substances usage. There were further studies that linked gene mutations in metabolic enzymes and target receptors to differences in caffeine responsiveness. Variations in these enzymes and receptors are related to caffeine-induced anxiety and sleep disruptions, according to the findings. In coffee users, variations in the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P-450 are linked to an increased risk of myocardial infarction. A case-control study looked at the link between mutations attributed to differences in caffeine sensitivity and the likelihood of Parkinson's disease.
In a variety of ways, genetic variability can influence a person's caffeine reaction and intake habits. It can make you more vulnerable to drug usage. Individuals’ responses to caffeine can also be influenced by diversity, resulting in a favourable or negative experience.